How to identify possible scientific partners
Follow these tips on how to find potential research collaborators.
Finding new potential collaborators and the exchange with colleagues to promote your research is crucial for GI specialists.
Pedro Rodrigues, a new member of the Young Talent Group in 2020, shares the most useful tips on how to identify a possible scientific partner.
Tip 1: Do attend the most important meetings in your field of expertise.
Tip 2: Try to synergize with good people.
Tip 3: Identify partners that complement your research and interests.
Tip 4: Engage researchers from different areas in order to create your own multidisciplinary network.
Tip 5: Collaborate with researchers that do not come with problems, but with solutions.
Tip 6: Select partners from all over the world.
Tip 7: Don’t forget to move!!!
Tip 8: Be involved in relevant associations and groups, and ask for help whenever necessary.
Tip 9: Don´t be shy! Just do it.
Liver biopsy for evaluation of fibrosis in chronic liver disease: Yes or no?
Two experts present their viewpoints
Chronic liver disease affects many millions of people worldwide and is a major cause of premature death. Assessing liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease can determine disease stage and progression, and also response to therapy, but whether this is best performed via a liver biopsy or noninvasive methods is a matter for debate.
Here, two European experts present their opposing viewpoints on how to assess fibrosis in the setting of chronic liver disease.
- Almpanis Z, Demonakou M and Tiniakos D. Evaluation of liver fibrosis: "Something old, something new…". Ann Gastroenterol 2016; 29: 445–453.
- Lackner C and Tiniakos D. Fibrosis and alcohol-related liver disease. J Hepatol 2019; 70:294–304.
- European Association for the Study of the Liver and Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado. EASL-ALEH Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-invasive tests for evaluation of liver disease severity and prognosis. J Hepatol 2015; 63: 237–264.
- Castera L, Friedrich-Rust M and Loomba R. Noninvasive assessment of liver disease in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2019; 156: 1264–281.
What not to do at UEG Week
Most common things you should avoid when attending UEG Week, to help you get the most out of your congress participation.
Attending international conferences is important to stay up to date in the world of digestive health. For junior specialists, a big congress like UEG Week can be overwhelming. Henriette Heinrich is Gastroenterology Consultant in the Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich, Switzerland, and incoming chair of the Young Talent Group. She has summarised the most common things you should avoid when attending UEG Week, to help you get the most out of your congress participation.
1. Not attending!
2. Not planning ahead @UEG Week
3. Not paying a visit to the Young GI Lounge (Hall 8.0)
4. Not jumping into the UEG Talent Pool
5. Not attending the Young GI Network event "Let’s meet!"
6. Not checking out the Education Booth (Hall 8.0)
7. Staying offline
- The UEG Week Mobile App (see pitfall number two)
- Online content to watch or rewatch (again, see pitfall number two)
- The UEG Week live video chats, during which surgeons and gastroenterologists battle it out and we explore the compatibility of having a job and a family. YOUR ONLINE INPUT AND QUESTIONS ARE HIGHLY APPRECIATED!
- Missing the news updates about UEG Week on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook
8. Missing out on seriously important events on research funding for scientists
- EU funded Cooperation Networks in GI: How to get involved?
- Fellowships and grants: How UEG can help your career
- EU funding opportunities and strategy in digestive health
9. Not bringing your team
Why students should attend UEG Week
3 medical students reveal how they experienced UEG Week.
Ivelina Georgieva, Giusi Sciume and Nikolay Manov study medicine in Italy and Bulgaria and attended UEG Week for the first time in 2018. In this video, they tell Radislav Nakov and Gianluca Ianiro why attending a big international congress can be helpful for undergraduate students’ careers as well and what they liked most about UEG Week.
What you always wanted to know from UEG Rising Stars...
Current and previous awardees answer our questions.
The Rising Stars Award provides a durable platform for young researchers to further improve and progress in their professional career. Current and previous UEG Rising Stars told us more about their experience receiving this award and how they benefited.
Take the next step in your research career and apply to become a Rising Star!Watch video interviews with other UEG Rising Stars.
How did the Rising Star Award contribute to your career in the long run?
What meant winning the UEG Rising Star Award to you and how has your career developed since you received the award?
What is the right moment and career stage to apply for the Rising Star Award and what will increase candidates’ chances to receive it?
Do you have any tips for Rising Star Award applicants? What should they consider and what should they focus on?
Do you have any tips for researchers from countries that offer fewer scientific opportunities? How can they compete in the run for the Rising Star Award?
How did you experience receiving the Rising Star Award and presenting your research on the stage?
Has the Rising Star Award made an impact on your career so far?
What was your motivation to apply for the Rising Star Award and what are your expectations?
Women in endoscopy
Marianna Arvanitakis talks about the situation and obstacles for women in interventional endoscopy.
Marianna Arvanitakis is an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Erasme, Brussels and specialises in pancreatic disease, nutrition and endoscopy.In this video, YTG member Ivana Mikolasevic talks to her about the situation and obstacles for women in endoscopy, in particular interventional endoscopy.
From clinical fellow to clinical lecturer – how to secure a post
Neel Sharma of the University of Birmingham shares his tips.
Post undertaking a research fellowship, the decision to remain as a clinician academic is the first one to take. If motivated and passionate enough it is a no brainer. However entering the next stage of training from fellow to lecturer is no easy feat; limited funding and posts. That in itself is a true test of your commitment.
Dr Neel Sharma, GI Registrar and Clinical Lecturer at the Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy and Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Birmingham shares his tips that may prove useful for those hoping to secure a post.
- Reach out to potential supervisors before submitting your application. It is advisable to show interest early on. Sending out an email and arranging an informal meeting helps to demonstrate your background thus far, your research progression during your fellowship and more importantly your understanding of the field. Supervisors are keen to know how well you recognise the current gaps in the evidence and how you may choose to solve them. Of course there is no one solution but the exchange of thinking is a fundamental element in academia. By meeting potential supervisors they can gauge how well you would fit their lab or research interests and if not which other supervisors may be better suited to you.
- The application form. The application process is fairly straight forward, highlighting your degrees thus far, prizes, publications and presentations. Where you will be able to set yourself apart is highlighting your long-term plan and what you can bring to the department in terms of your skillset. And here there is no right or wrong. Collaboration is key for any successful researcher. You must demonstrate an awareness of such and potential collaborations thus far is crucial. It is now overtly outdated to think that one centre can achieve academic success without reliance on other institutions. There is now no single expert. Have you taken steps to develop a network early on? Are you culturally aware? Ensuring diversity in your research network with a willingness to embrace expertise both East and West will set you apart from the rest.
- The interview. And last but by no means least the interview. Interviews are never plain sailing. You may have to face several. But your approach should be consistent each time. It is highly likely that you will be asked to analyse a research study. This will help to highlight to panel members your ability to condense a paper in to its main findings and of more importance its potential flaws. Gain an understanding of trial methodology and data analysis, most of which you will be familiar with post fellowship but there may be some methods or stats you may not be aware of. You will be asked about your research vision and so be concrete in your beliefs. Even if some panel members disagree stick to what you believe. And what you want to add to the field, even if widely different to the panel. Remember you are not here to solve all the research gaps but to add to the understanding of the discipline over your career. Demonstrate to the interviewers your motivation and even if criticised remember the criticisms are designed simply to ensure what you aim to contribute will be more rigorous and more translatable in the future.
Achalasia: Physician versus Surgeon
Two European experts give their opposing views on the best treatment option for achalasia
Oesophageal achalasia is a rare motility disorder, in which peristalsis is impaired or absent and the lower oesophageal sphincter fails to relax. Symptoms of achalasia include dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, coughing and choking, chest pain and chest infections.
We invited two European experts to give their opposing viewpoints—physician versus surgeon—on the best treatment option for achalasia.
A Physician's Viewpoint—Paul FockensAlthough the title of this blog quickly attracted your attention, it is actually not a choice between physician and surgeon but a choice between peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). From a patient's point of view, the natural orifice approach will be preferred as it diminishes complications and reduces recovery time. But are both treatments equal in their efficacy and safety profile? There are many studies that suggest the efficacy of both POEM and LHM is excellent, but POEM has not been around very long so less evidence is available. Two large randomized controlled trials presented in abstract form and awaiting full publication both demonstrate the high efficacy of POEM, which seems equal to LHM and superior to a set of two pneumatic dilations. But how about safety? POEM is significantly less invasive, and thereby safer, than LHM; complications are very rare and usually mild. Therefore, with comparable efficacy and improved safety when compared with LHM, POEM seems to have a bright future. Is there any disadvantage to POEM? Yes, there is one issue and that is reflux. POEM can currently not be combined with an endoscopic antireflux procedure, so a significant percentage of patients will have to use proton pump inhibitors after POEM. It is up to the patient, after care has been taken to inform them about all available treatment options, to come to a shared decision with their doctor. Without a doubt in my mind, I believe POEM will frequently be the patient's favourite choice! References
- Ponds FA, et al. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) versus pneumatic dilatation in therapy-naive patients with achalasia: results of a randomized controlled trial [abstract 637]. Gastroenterology 2017; 152 (suppl 1): S139.
- Werner YB, et al. Endoscopic versus surgical myotomy in patients with primary idiopathic achalasia [abstract LB08]. United European Gastroenterology Journal 2018; 6: 1590.
A Surgeon's Viewpoint—Giovanni ZaninottoSurgical treatment of oesophageal achalasia divides the muscle fibresof the distal oesophagus and cardia, leaving the underlying mucosa intact. Consequently, resistance of the lower oesophageal sphincter to the flow of the bolus is diminished. Heller myotomy, named for the German surgeon who performed it first (in 1913), has been completed laparoscopically (LHM) since 1990, with a partial wrap of the fundus added to prevent iatrogenic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). LHM has gained vast popularity because of its efficacy in reducing dysphagia (89% and 85% of patients are asymptomatic at 5 and 10 years, respectively) while maintaining a very good safety profile (mortality <0.1%, morbidity <7%). Postoperative reflux is observed in 10–20% of patients when a partial fundoplication is added to LHM. Three randomized controltrials and three meta-analyses have compared the efficacy of LHM with that of pneumatic dilation, revealing that pneumatic dilation can achieve the same efficacy as LHM only after multiple, sequential dilations. Moreover, LHM is more effective than pneumatic dilation for treatment of type III spastic achalasia. There are no randomized control trials published in full that compare LHM with POEM, though two meta-analyses show that POEM achieves slightly (but significantly) better symptomatic control than LHM, especially for type III achalasia. However, the duration of the patient follow-up was shorter for POEM, and POEM presented a higher risk of postoperative reflux (20–40%). I believe five small abdominal scars are preferable to an increased risk of GORD, and that LHM remains the 'single-shot' better option for achalasia patients. References
- Boeckxstaens G, Zaninotto G and Richter JE. Achalasia. Lancet 2013; 383: 83–93.
- Zaninotto G, et al. The 2018 ISDE achalasia guidelines. Dis Esoph 2018; 9: 1–31.
Dealing with nutrition, diet, microbiota and IBS
Nutrition expert Heidi Staudacher speaks about advances in IBS research.
Heidi Staudacher is a research dietician at the University of Queensland in Australia.With Rune Stensvold from the UEG E-learning Team, she speaks about advances in IBS research and how it can be used to help IBS patients. Have also a look at Heidi Staudacher's presentation "The low FODMAP diet: Selecting the right candidate" at UEG Week Vienna 2018
UEG Image Hub
A new source of GI images online, freely available to download.
As an editor I’m clearly a big fan of words, but I’m also a big fan of images and the way they can add value and visual interest. As part of our work, the UEG E-learning Team is always thinking about how best to illustrate our content, be it on online courses (and their summary infographics), “Mistakes in…” articles or our latest news blogs. Although we necessarily do use third-party figures or photos, as often as possible we work with our art editor and authors to develop original images, such as the few shared here in this blog.
Apply for a UEG Activity Grant to produce an online course
Developing an online course is not as complicated as you may think.
Tough but doable
8 Tips for passing the European Specialty Examination in Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Anthea Pisani is a gastroenterology trainee in Mater Dei Hospital in Malta. She passed the European Specialty Examination in Gastroenterology and Hepatology in April 2018 and gave a talk about “Tough but doable: A personal view on the exam” in the Young GI Lounge at the subsequent UEG Week in Vienna. Her presentation was very much appreciated, so we asked Anthea to share her top tips for passing the exam in the GI Hive.
So, you have decided to sit for the European Specialty Examination in Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Perhaps this was a voluntary decision on your behalf in order to broaden your horizons, or it may be a mandatory aspect of your training. It may be your first attempt or maybe a re-attempt and you might be at the beginning of your training or at the end of it. Either way, good luck with your preparations. Here are some points to help guide you towards becoming a European board certified Gastroenterologist.
From bench to the UEG floor
A personal experience from an young gastroenterologist from Egypt and how UEG helped him to achieve his goals.
Mohammed Khorshid, a young gastroenterologist, tells us his personal success story of being invited to give an oral presentation at UEG Week.
UEG Classroom Courses
These educational events are perfect opportunities to increase your GI knowledge.
Radislav Nakov, member of the YTG and the Education Committee explains what’s happening at UEG’s classroom courses and who should attend them.These educational events are perfect opportunities to increase your GI knowledge but also to expand your professional network. Find out more about the courses and how to apply.
Work-life balance: 10 tips from the UEG Week 2018 experience
A list of Dos and Dont's that came out of the Career Chat.
Carolina Ciacci is a full Professor of Gastroenterology at University of Salerno (Italy), a member of the UEG Equality & Diversity Taskforce and a mother of two adult children. At UEG Week 2018, she participated in the session “Career Chat: Women as educators” and in the Facebook live chat “How to improve work-life balance for doctors?”. Based on these discussions and her own personal experience she shares her ten tips for work life balance in this edition of the GI Hive.
Here is a list of Do's and Dont's that came out of the Career Chat:
- Make a careful analysis of your potential and find out how to empower yourself, both at work and within the family.
- Set up your priorities, short and long-term goals. Get the skills you need to succeed. Look around, find a spot for you in your working setting, fill up the empty space with expertise and knowledge. Live up to your potential!
- Choose your family partner carefully. This will help to share your family duties with him/her. Make a written list of each of your tasks. Try to set a routine for chores but know that you both need to be flexible.
- Ask for help! Outsourcing is not a shame. It is hard to be on the same day on call, a mother, and a good housekeeper. Hire all the help you can afford, even if you have to pay a fee.
- Make a careful plan of your expenses, since outsourcing is expensive. In some periods of your life, it is more important to spend less on entertaining and more on babysitting or housekeeping.
- Be efficient! Consider reducing commuting by living close to the workplace, or the kindergarten/ school. Find a gym next to your working place and go whenever you can. Check on your smartphone the time you spend on social media. You will be surprised how much time you waste scrolling the screen of your phone (yet it is sane to do that for some time!)
- Keep healthy! Eat well, train your body, and get a good night´s sleep. Don’t forget to look after your mind. Have a little quiet time alone. Enjoy small moments of harmony. It is vital to be fit for the daily challenges of your life.
- Learn to say “no”! Saying “no” is difficult; however, you need to protect yourself from unnecessary and unfair demands that will add nothing to your personal growth and career. Be firm and protect your space.
- Failure is not an option (Gene Kranz, Apollo 13). Accept the possibility that sometimes in your life your career might slow down temporarily because of family engagements. Use your time at home cleverly; you might find a way to write a review or improve your knowledge in a particular field.
- Do not mix up family and work. When you are at work, focus on what you are doing. Do not make unnecessary phone calls or waste time discussing your family life with your colleagues. Remember also that your colleagues may have supported you when you were on parental leave, so be helpful and available for them, too. On the other hand, if you are at home with your family limit checking your emails, or answering phone calls as much as possible. Multitasking will not work if you are striving for excellence in both fields.
- World Economic Forum. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017
UEG Research Fellowship
UEG YTG Member Gianluca Ianiro talks about this revolutional UEG grant for researchers.
We spoke with Gianluca Ianiro, a gastroenterologist at Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli in Rome, and a member of the UEG Young Talent Group (YTG) and UEG Research Committee
National young GI sections and the ECYG
Ivana Mikolasevic talks about the European Conference of Young Gastroenterologists
The GI Hive is a brand-new blog from the UEG Young Talent Group (YTG) that covers the most up-to-date information about life, career development, education and opportunities for young gastroenterologist in Europe. Interviews, infographics, WhatsApp conversations and videos with both junior and renowned gastroenterologists will all be published in the GI Hive on a regular basis.Our latest guest in the GI Hive is Ivana Mikolasevic, a member of the UEG YTG and an associate professor in Rijeka, Croatia. In December 2018, Ivana and a group of young gastroenterologists from the Croatian Young GI section (Tomislav Bokun, Maja Mijić, Sanja Stojsavljević, Nadija Skenderević, Ana Ostojić, Viktor Domislović, Ivan Jakopčić, Petra Puž) are holding the first European Conference of Young Gastroenterologists in Zagreb, Croatia. Ivana is president of the organizing committee and shared a few words with us about the conference and the Croatian Young GI Section.
There are still countries in Europe without a young GI section and the YTG has published a paper on how to start one. Could you tell us how everything started in your country and about the organisation of the Croatian Young GI section and its activities?We revived the inactive youth section of our national society of gastroenterology in 2013. We first started having meetings during national society meetings/congresses, following the organisation of dedicated sessions for young gastroenterologists when they presented their best scientific work. Then we took over the administration of our society's webpage and gradually the idea of having our own meeting grew. At the beginning of 2017 we organised the first three-day symposium dedicated to members of the youth section: it was a great success and was repeated early this year. To be honest, as we are a rather small community, we were sceptical about having our own meeting, but it eventually appeared to become almost like a necessity and the occasion all young members eagerly awaited—to meet each other and be able to discuss common interests and problems. Our senior colleagues have been extremely supportive of all our activities, so we would suggest that young gastroenterologists start activities for themselves in their own countries without fear, and that they ask for support of any kind from senior colleagues.
How did you decide to organise the first European Conference of Young Gastroenterologists (ECYG)?So, I talked in front of our small ECYG team—Tomislav Bokun, Maja Mijić, Sanja Stojsavljević, Nadija Skenderević, Ana Ostojić, Viktor Domislović, Ivan Jakopčić, Petra Puž and me. The idea for the conference organisation was born within the Youth Section of the Croatian Society of Gastroenterology, with a desire to stimulate and strengthen international cooperation. We already have annual meetings of the youth section when we discuss how to improve our education; we hold lectures about specific topics in digestive health and so on. We wanted to do the same thing with this conference but on a European level, because we have all had such good experiences making contact with colleagues from other countries who we met on courses and congresses we have attended during our education. Therefore, we wanted to create something that would be focused on young gastroenterologists and their networking, under the supervision of senior experts established in specific fields of gastroenterology. The idea of gathering together as many young GIs as possible so that we can make new contacts and share experiences made us enthusiastic, although, at first, none of us were probably aware of exactly what we were getting ourselves into. Then, once we put down all the assignments on paper, we rolled up our sleeves and started working.
What can young GIs learn by attending the ECYC?This is the first conference targeting young gastroenterologist from all over Europe with the purpose of exchanging experience, knowledge and ideas with eminent professors and researchers. The main idea of the conference is for us, young gastroenterologists, to have a chance to present our most challenging clinical cases and discuss them with our peers and acknowledged experts in the field. Furthermore, ECYG gives us the opportunity to present our clinical and scientific work in a poster presentation form. Not only that, during hands-on sessions young delegates will be able to improve their manual skills in abdominal ultrasound, Colour Doppler, elastography and endoscopy. Moreover, this conference will enable us to initiate constructive and productive dialogues and to create a network for future collaboration with colleagues all over Europe. Finally, to enable us to achieve this goal, interaction will be encouraged and stimulated throughout the conference.
What are the most important messages from the conference?Learn. Connect. Grow. It doesn’t matter if you come from a big or small country, region or hospital—if you try to give the best of yourself, as we, people from a small country, are trying to do by organising this conference, you can succeed in anything. Finally, our wish is that this project stimulates the awareness of young people about the need for teamwork, co-operation and education, both within their own centre and among other centres. Our small team wants to stress the importance of teamwork and collaboration needed in everyday practice to succeed. Another important point is the apparent need for organising events and programs dedicated to young GIs. This conference is another 'proof of concept' for gathering young GIs in youth GI sections and organising events for them. We believe that every nation should have their own young GI section and all their own meetings, and we also call for close collaboration in organising hopefully future ECYGs. We invite you to view the YTG section of the UEG webpage for more information on activities for young GIs within UEG and to get into contact with the YTG and also Friends of YTG countries around Europe. We also invite you to share your experience about organizing events for young GIs as this could help us to improve the quality of ECYG. Fresh ideas are also warmly welcomed! To improve our knowledge, we have to work together and exchange our ideas, so we can approach complex medical problems from every angle. The future of the field lies with young gastroenterologists, but the knowledge lies with those who are less young. We want to transfer knowledge into the future.
What are your insights for the future of the conference?Well, we want to do it all over again! Call us crazy, but so far this has been such a great experience and we are sure it will continue this way until and during the conference. We hope that we will get good feedback and reviews, so we can show that a small country like Croatia can do something big as this when people work together.
Interviewer: Radislav Nakov
GI Hive, a brand new blog by the UEG Young Talent Group
Yasmijn van Herwaarden reveals more about the activities of young GIs within UEG.
GI Hive is a brand new blog edited by UEG Young Talent Group that combines the most up-to-date information about life, career development, education and opportunities for young GI specialists in Europe. Interviews, infographics, WhatsApp conversations and videos with both junior and renowned specialists will be regularly published in GI Hive.The first bee in the GI Hive is Yasmijn van Herwaarden – UEG Young Talent Group (YTG) chair. Yasmijn is a resident at the Rijnstate hospital in Arnhem, the Netherlands and tries to finish her PhD thesis at the Radboud university hospital in Nijmegen. She is a 30-year old Sagittarius and loves painting, pilates and plants.
Yasmijn, could you explain what is exactly Young Talent Group? What are the activities of the young GIs within UEG?
Among the most popular opportunities provided by YTG are the clinical and research fellowship programmes. Could you share with us a little bit more about them?These fellowships were started to give young clinicians and researchers an opportunity to visit another European centre. We award € 1250 to spend at least two weeks in one of the participating centers.
The YTG published a paper on the needs of young GI sections in UEG Journal. Can you explain what are the needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies?We circulated a questionnaire among our Friends of the Young Talent Group to make an overview of the situation of young GI’s in each country. We learned that in many countries the young GI’s/residents are not organized and represented at a national level. We believe that it is important for young professionals to be represented and actually have a say in decisions that are made about their daily work and their future workplace.
Why it is important for a young GI to send an abstract to UEG Week?For me submitting an abstract as a young researcher was always important because it was the opportunity to visit a conference and travel. I was fortunate that if the abstract was accepted for poster or oral presentation my department would pay for the travel costs and the conference fee.
How can a young GI get involved with Young Talent Group and what is Young GI Network?An easy way to stay in touch and hear about all our offers is to like the Young GI Network Facebook page. You can also subscribe to our mailing list and visit the UEG website to hear about the open calls we post. All the calls for the fellowships, other awards and grants and open calls for new positions in the YTG will be posted there.
Personalised nutrition - food for thought
Developing tailored eating advice based on individual nutritional needs
‘Personalised nutrition’ represents any attempt to provide tailor-made healthy eating advice based on the nutritional needs of an individual, as dictated by their behaviour, phenotype and/or genotype and their interactions. Increasing evidence has shown the potential for integrating lifestyle habits, physiology, nutraceuticals, the gut microbiome and genetics into nutritional solutions, specific to the needs of each individual, for maintaining health and preventing disease.
- 200 µg folic acid
- 40 mg vitamin C
- No more than 6 g salt
- At least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables
- No more than 11% of energy from saturated fat
- Fenech M, El-Sohemy A, Cahill L, et al. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: Viewpoints on the current status and applications in nutrition research and practice. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenom 2011; 4: 69–89.
- Food Standards Agency. Nutrient and food based guidelines for UK institutions. https://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/nutrition/national-nutrition-guidelines-united-kingdom. (2007, revised October 2007, accessed 11 May 2018).
- Blumeberg JF, Bailey RL, Sesso HD, et al. The evolving role of multivitamin/multimineral supplement use among adults in the age of personalized nutrition. Nutrients 2018; 10: 248.
- Kohlmeier M, De Caterina R, Ferguson LR, et al. Guide and position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on personalized nutrition: Part 2 – Ethics, challenges and endeavors of Precision Nutrition. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenom 2016; 9: 28–46.
- Liew SC and Gupta ED. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism: Epidemiology, metabolism and the associated diseases. Eur J Med Genet 2015; 58: 1–10.
- Görman U, Mathers JC, Grimaldi KA, et al. Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition. Genes Nutr 2013; 8: 373–381.
- Davis CD and Milner JA. Nutrigenomics, vitamin D and cancer prevention. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenom 2011; 4: 1–11.